Why test for SARS-CoV-2(COVID-19) Detection (Coronavirus)
Corona virus is a novel respiratoty virus that originated in Wuhan, China and has spread through various continents other than Asia including Europe, North America and middle east. On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organisation declared the COVID a pandemic. The outbreak began in late December 2019, when several cases of pneumonia like symptoms were reportd in Wuhan. The virus that caused the outbreak was identified as SARS-COV-2, which was closely related to bat corona virus.
The virus spreads between people in a way similar to influenza, via respiratory droplets from coughing. The time between exposure and symptom onset is typically five days, but may range from two to fourteen days. Symptoms are most often fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Complications may include pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome.
The WHO(World Health Organization) has published several RNA testing protocols for SARS-CoV-2, which uses real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction(rRT-PCR).The test can be done on respiratory or blood samples. Results are generally available within a few hours to days. A person is considered to be at risk of having COVID-19 if they have travelled to an area with ongoing community transmission within the previous 14 days or have had close contact with an infected person. Common key indicators include fever, coughing, and shortness of breath. Other possible indicators include fatigue, myalgia, anorexia, sputum production, and sore throat.
An alternative method of diagnosis is based on clinical presentation such as looking for visual signature patterns of COVID-19 in CT scans of the lungs. Signs of pneumonia may precede confirmation of COVID-19 infection through RT-PCR.
Prevention suggestions include good hygiene, such as washing hands when appropriate, avoiding touching the eyes, nose or mouth with unwashed hands, coughing/sneezing into a tissue and putting the tissue directly into a dustbin and (for those who may already have the infection) wearing a surgical mask in public. Social distancing measures are also recommended to prevent transmission.
There are no specific antiviral medications but development efforts are underway. Attempts to relieve the symptoms may include taking regular over-the-counter cold medications, drinking fluids, and resting. Depending on the severity, oxygen therapy, intravenous fluids, and breathing support may be required. The use of may worsen outcomes.
Some countries require people to report flu-like symptoms to their doctor, especially if they have visited mainland China.
Clinical trials are underway in for some antiviral drugs and remedies.