What is Lipid Profile?
Lipid profile or lipid panel is the collective term given to the estimation of, typically, overall cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. An extended lipid profile may consist of very low-density lipoprotein.
That is used to identify hyperlipidemia (various disturbances of cholesterol and triglyceride levels), many forms of which can be recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease and sometimes pancreatitis. Your blood cholesterol level has loads to do with your probabilities of getting heart disease. High blood cholesterol is one of the major risk factors for heart disease.
A risk factor is a situation that increases your chance of getting a disease. In fact, the higher your blood cholesterol level, the greater your risk of developing heart disease or having a heart attack. Heart disease is the number one killer of women and men in the United States. Every 12 months, more than a million Americans have heart attacks, and about a half of million people die from heart disease.
In medical term –
A pattern of lipids in the blood. A lipid profile usually includes the levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and the calculated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) ‘cholesterol.
Cholesterol and triglycerides are important in certain quantities for fitness and well-being, since they perform important functions inside the body. It helps in building cells and manufacture hormones. LDL carries cholesterol throughout the body to carry out those functions.
HDL is the clean-up lipoprotein, picking up extra cholesterol and carrying it back to the liver. Triglycerides are utilized by the body to store energy and to provide that energy, as needed, to the muscles.
What does the test measure?
Lipids are a group of fat and fat-like materials that are important elements of cells and sources of energy. A lipid panel measures the level of specific lipids in the blood.
Important lipids, cholesterol, and triglycerides are transported in the blood by lipoprotein particles. Every particle consists of a combination of protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, and phospholipid molecules. The particles measured with a lipid profile are categorized by their density into high-density lipoproteins (HDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL).
Tracking and maintaining healthy levels of these lipids is essential in staying healthy. While the body produces the cholesterol needed to function properly, the source for some cholesterol is the diet. eating too much of foods that are high in saturated fat and trans unsaturated fat (trans fat) or having an inherited predisposition can result in a high level of cholesterol in the blood.
The extra cholesterol may be deposited in plaques on the walls of blood vessels. Plaques can narrow or eventually block the opening of blood vessels, leading to hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) and increasing the risk of numerous health problems, including heart disease and stroke. A high level of triglycerides in the blood is also associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), despite the fact that the reason for this isn’t always well understood.
A lipid panel normally includes:-
- General cholesterol
- High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) — often called “good cholesterol” because it removes extra cholesterol and carries it to the liver for removal.
- Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) — often called “bad cholesterol” as it deposits extra cholesterol in walls of blood vessels, which can contribute to atherosclerosis.
Procedure and treatments?
For lipid profile test, you ought to avoid eating or drinking anything apart from water for 9 to 12 hours earlier than your test.
Before your test, you have to also tell your doctor about, any signs and symptoms or health issues you’re experiencing
your family records of heart health, all medicines, and supplements which you’re currently taking, in case you’re taking medications that could increase your cholesterol levels, including birth control drugs, your doctor might also ask you to stop taking them some days earlier than your test and to test your cholesterol levels, your doctor will need to get a sample of your blood.
You may possibly have your blood drawn in the morning, sometimes after fasting since the night before. Lipid panel test outcomes, provide you with a measurement of your personal level of total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglycerides. Those numbers can help you and your healthcare provider determine whether or not your levels fall within a healthy range or one that indicates an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
According to the national heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, for adults, those ranges are as follows:-
- A total cholesterol level below 200 mg/dL, is healthy. Levels between 200 and 239 mg/dL, borderline high. Total cholesterol numbers of 240 mg/dL or greater, high cholesterol levels.
- Levels of LDL cholesterol, optimal if they fall below 100 mg/dL. Levels between 100 and 129 mg/dL, near optimal and are still within the healthy range. LDL levels between 130 and 159 mg/dL, borderline high. LDL numbers between 160 and 189 are high, and levels of 190 or higher, very high.
- HDL cholesterol higher level is better. Levels less than 40 mg/dL, major risk factor for heart disease. HDL numbers between 40 and 59 mg/dL, is healthy, but the higher they are within that range, the better. Levels of 60 mg/dL or higher, is protective against heart disease.
- Triglyceride levels below 150 mg/dL, is desirable. Triglyceride levels of 150 to 199 mg/dL are borderline high. Levels between 200 and 499 mg/dL, high. Triglyceride numbers of 500 mg/dL or higher, doctors consider it very high.
With treatment, high cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels, decrease to healthy ones, reducing your risk of heart disease. Commonly, doctors will advise lifestyle changes first as a means of reducing unhealthy lipid levels.
Those generally include dietary changes to reduce your consumption of fats and increase your consumption of fiber, cardio exercise to help lower cholesterol levels and control your weight and getting rid of harmful habits – smoking, for example. If lifestyle measures alone do not bring your cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels back to a healthful range, your doctor may suggest that you attempt one of several medications that can further reduce them.
What do the Test Results Mean?
In case your cholesterol numbers are outside of the normal range then you are at a higher risk of heart disease, stroke, and atherosclerosis. if your test outcomes are abnormal, your doctor will order a blood glucose test to check for diabetes. Your doctor will also order a thyroid function test to determine if your thyroid is underactive.
A lipid panel test is a blood test that measures levels of lipids, fat and fatty substances, inside the bloodstream.
Though this statistics is important in helping assess a person’s risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, which includes atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, heart disease, heart attack and stroke, in addition to evaluating the effectiveness of treatments meant to help lower that risk.