PCOD- Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments

A large number of women around the world are suffering from Polycystic Ovarian Disease (PCOD) or Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS). It is one of the most common sexual disorders with characteristic symptoms like enlargement of the ovaries and multiple cysts on the outer layer of ovaries and sometimes other associated organs. The exact cause of PCOD is not clear, but it happens when a woman suffers from hormonal disturbances due to any reason from psychology to pathology. In addition to the ovaries enlargement and cysts, there are some other health conditions directly or indirectly related to PCOD. Read on to know more about PCOS, its possible causes, symptoms, and some treatments.

What is PCOD?

Polycystic Ovarian Disease is an abnormal condition associated with prolonged abnormal function of the ovaries, an abnormal increase in androgen levels. Also known as Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) and Stein-Leventhal Syndrome, it is one of the most common causes of prolonged disturbances in menstrual cycles. Usually, PCOD affects a woman during child-bearing age, but it can affect even younger females as well.

Difference b/w Male and Female:

Normally, the eggs released by the ovaries are fertilized by the male sperms, the release of these eggs from ovaries is medically termed as ovulation, which is maintained and controlled by Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH). FSH stimulates ovaries to produce egg-containing sacs, and LH triggers the release of the mature egg from the ovaries. In the case of PCOD, the whole process of ovulation is completely disturbed and causes symptoms like irregular periods, the abnormal release of male hormones and cysts in or on the ovaries.

The abnormal or sometimes the absence of ovulation disturbs the normal levels of progesterone, estrogen, FSH, and LH. Progesterone and estrogen are increased while the level androgen is lower than what it is in normal condition.

Extra production of male hormones completely alters the menstrual cycle, so females affected with PCOD always suffer from abnormal and irregular periods.

Causes of PCOD:

As we have discussed earlier, the exact cause of PCOD is not clear, but studies suggest that some abnormal conditions are directly or indirectly responsible for it. Some of the major causes are:

  • Hormonal Imbalance:

Hormonal imbalance is one of the most common causative factors responsible for numerous unhealthy conditions in females including PCOD. There are a plethora of reasons behind the hormonal imbalance including improper or lack of diet, stress, obesity, abnormal periods and pregnancy, etc.


  • Genetics:

According to studies, PCOD runs through generations. If someone is, affected with PCOS then there are high chances of occurrence in the next generation.

  • Excessive Insulin:

The pancreas produces the hormone known as insulin known for helping cells in using the sugar properly. In some abnormal conditions, your cells show resistance to insulin, and there is an abnormal increase in blood sugar levels. In reaction to the increased blood level, the production of insulin increases automatically which is sometimes responsible for the abnormal increase in the production of androgens and hence causing problems like PCOD.

Encircling one major cause of PCOS is tough. Whether it is about excessive insulin production in the body, or you talk about abnormal hormones production or function, one more condition can be responsible for PCOD or PCOD can be the factor behind these problems. So, all of them are associated with each other.

Some Common Symptoms of PCOD:

Sometimes PCOD doesn’t reveal any symptom at all, or it shows symptoms in very late stage, when there is excessive enlargement of ovaries with multiple cysts are seen. Some common symptoms seen in early and slightly late stages of PCOD are:

  • Heavy Bleeding:

    Not necessarily it is only reflective of PCOD. Periods with heavy bleeding are, noticed in some other abnormal health conditions as well but in the case of PCOS heavy bleeding is one of the common symptoms.

  • Irregular and Infrequent Periods:

    It is one of the most common symptoms of PCOD, but again, don’t presume that irregular periods are reflective of PCOS, it can happen due to other physical, psychological and hormonal factors as well, but more than 80% females with PCOD complaint about disturbances in periods.


  • Skin Darkness:

    Dark patches on the skin, especially at some common body parts like neck, groin, and under the breasts, are noticed.

  • Rapid Weight Gain:

    It completely disturbs the hormonal balance, and causes rapid growth in weight. About 90% of females with this reported about some increase in weight.

Other symptoms associated with PCOS are a headache, acne, irritation, and feeling of sadness, etc. All these symptoms are, seen in some other problems as well but it is good to seek advice from a qualified gynecologist.

Treatment of PCOD:

Diagnosis is very important in every abnormal condition or disease, and when it is about problems like PCOD, it becomes more important. A physician should never confirm PCOS only by noticing the symptoms. A proper investigation including ultrasonography of the lower abdomen must be, suggested to diagnose the problem properly. Some treatments are very helpful to combat PCOD. Scroll down to know more.

  • Metformin:

Metformin (Fortamet, Glucophage) is, used in case of diabetes type 2. It reduces the excessive production of insulin, and treats it as well.

Taking metformin with changes in diet, exercise, and weight management should be very helpful to fight PCOD.

  • Clomiphene:

Clomiphene (Clomid) is an infertility drug and also used in the treatment of PCOS. It increases the chances of conceiving the baby but increases the risk of twins and other abnormal births.

  • Homeopathy:

Recent studies and reports suggest that Homoeopathic treatment is very successful to cure it completely. Homeopathic medicines like Pulsatilla, Natrum Mur, ThujaOccidentalis, CalcareaCarbonica, and Sepia are famous for excellent curable action in case of PCOS. One of the biggest advantages of opting homeopathic treatment is it is very gentle, and you can fight PCOD without any fear of medicine reaction.


  • Surgery:

If it is in severe stages and doesn’t improve with medical treatment; surgical procedures like ovarian drilling and removal of cysts are, advised to improve fertility.

The Conclusion:

PCOD is not something new in medical abbreviations therefore it is affecting a large number of women around the world, and it is pretty much curable especially during early stages. Some alteration in diets, proper management, and medical attention can completely treat PCOD. Hope you’ve found the write up helpful to understand everything about PCOS. Never; yes, never take any medicine without consulting your gynecologist. If you are noticing these symptoms, consult your physician today for proper diagnosis and treatment.

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