Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.
Type 1 Diabetes results from the pancreas’s failure to produce enough insulin.
Type 2 Diabetes begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. As the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop.
If you receive a prediabetes, it means you have a higher-than-normal blood sugar level that’s not high enough to be diagnostic for diabetes. If you don’t get treatment for it, prediabetes can lead to type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.
Gestational diabetes is the third main form and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop high blood sugar levels.
Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas. It allows your body use sugar for strength. It gets rid of sugar from your blood and helps lower your blood sugar levels. You can need to take insulin if your pancreas isn’t making enough. You may additionally need to take insulin if your body cannot use insulin efficiently
Different types of insulin
Several types of insulin are used to lower your blood sugar level. Each type of insulin has a different onset, peak, and duration. The onset is how soon the insulin starts to lower your blood sugar levels. The peak is when the insulin has the greatest effect on your blood sugar level. The duration is how long the insulin continues to lower your blood sugar level.
The following are types of insulin:
- Rapid-acting insulin will lower your blood sugar level quickly. Inject this insulin no more than 15 minutes before you eat a meal.
- Regular or short-acting insulin helps control your blood sugar level during meals. Inject this insulin 30 to 45 minutes before you eat a meal.
- Intermediate-acting insulin helps control your blood sugar level between meals. You may need intermediate-acting insulin in the morning, at bedtime, or both. Intermediate-acting insulin may look cloudy.
- Long-acting insulin will help keep your blood sugar level the same throughout the day. You may take this type of insulin in the morning or at bedtime.
- Premixed insulin is a combination of 2 types of insulin. The combination is usually a rapid-acting or short-acting insulin mixed with an intermediate-acting insulin. The rapid-acting or short-acting insulin will control your blood sugar levels at meals. The intermediate-acting insulin will control your blood sugar levels between meals.
- Inhaled insulin is a spray that you inhale through your nose. This insulin begins working within 12 to 15 minutes.
Level of insulin
A fasting insulin level test is valuable in numerous situations. “Prediabetes” is one result of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance causes high cholesterol, high glucose, and high blood pressure. A high level of fasting insulin indicates insulin resistance and can encourage someone to make modifications to lower it. Fasting blood sugar levels underneath 100 milligrams/deciliter (mg/dL) are considered normal. Levels between 100 and 125 mg/dL are diagnostic for Prediabetes. Levels equal to or greater than 126 mg/dL are diagnostic for diabetes. Men and women vary substantially in regard to levels of insulin resistance, body composition, and strength stability. Adipose tissue distribution, especially the presence of improved visceral and hepatic adiposity, performs an important role in the improvement of insulin resistance and weight problems-associated complications.
Insuline Requirement More in Male or Female
For a given body mass index, men were reported to have more lean mass, women to have higher adiposity. Men were also found to have more visceral and hepatic adipose tissue, whereas women had more peripheral or subcutaneous adipose tissue. These differences, as well as differences in sex hormones and adipokines, may contribute to a more insulin-sensitive environment in women than in men. When normalized to kilograms of lean body mass, men and women had similar resting energy expenditure, but physical energy expenditure was more closely related to percent body fat in men than in women.
Elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have much higher risks of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular accident (CVA) compared to younger diabetic patients. Because of these risks, diabetes may shorten an individual’s lifespan by approximately 10 years. A considerable number of studies have assessed IHD and CVA risk factors in culturally diverse groups of diabetic patients less than 70 years of age. With regard to glycaemic control, a recent meta-analysis of several large clinical studies revealed that intensive and strict glycaemic control was more effective than standard control for preventing IHD.
More amounts of visceral and hepatic adipose tissue, together with the lack of a possible shielding effect of estrogen, associated with higher insulin resistance in men, compared with women