Introduction to High blood sugar
Diabetes is a serious, chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin (a hormone that regulates blood sugar, or glucose), or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin produced in the body. The number of cases and the prevalence of diabetes, both has been steadily increasing over the past few decades. Incidence of type 1 and type 2 is not same for all- it can be type 1 in which body does not secrete insulin, or type 2 if the body does not utilize insulin. The majority of people with diabetes are affected by type 2 diabetes.
Prevention of Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes cannot be, prevented with current knowledge. Type 1 diabetes occurs due to autoimmune destruction of beta cells, usually leading to absolute insulin deﬁciency. Effective approaches are available to prevent type 2 diabetes, the progressive loss of beta cell insulin secretion. Various treatment and prevention programs have been devised to prevent the complications and premature death that can result from all types of diabetes. Regardless of whether you are diabetic, exercising regularly, eating healthy, not smoking, and controlling blood pressure and lipids is the key to diabetes-free life.
Reduce body weight
Weight loss through a diet plan is important for controlling blood sugar level in diabetes in many obese individuals. Experts say that 7% weight loss goal is ideal as a target for weight loss because of the feasibility in achieving, and maintaining it. Also, the individual is less likely to develop diabetes. Calculation of calorie goals was done by estimating the daily calories needed and subtracting 500–1,000 calories/day (depending on initial body weight). The diet plan should be such that it has least quantities of carbohydrates, more of proteins and much more of green leafy vegetables. In a clinical trial, the patients were found to attain the 7% weight loss in 6 months at, recommended pace of weight loss of 1–2 lb/week, which was quite commendable.
Have Healthy Diet
Reduce your caloric intake if you want to reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. A well, drafted diet plan is very important for a diabetic person as he has been, advised to check his blood sugar level and keep it under control. A diet rich in vegetables, monounsaturated fatty acids, whole grains and lean meat is good in reducing the risk and keeps away cardiovascular risks. Include more intakes of yogurt, nuts, and some portions of coffee, and tea which, associated with reduced diabetes risk.
Avoid red meats and sugar-containing beverages. Reduce consumption of refined carbohydrates, processed and canned food. Limit alcohol intake to 2 drinks per day. Minimize salt intake. Include fresh fruits in your diet after consulting your dietitian; you must know when and which fruit you can have. Six small meals instead of three big ones can help to keep the portion of food under control. A high-energy breakfast, moderate lunch and modest dinner can control dangerous blood sugar spikes. In between light snacking is, suggested.
Regular physical activity is very important to stay fit. Depending on your age and physical condition, you can choose the type of exercise you want to do after consulting your healthcare expert. Aerobic exercises are those that use large muscle groups and requires oxygen for long periods.
Brisk walking, jogging, swimming, bike riding are aerobic exercises that should be intense enough to elevate pulse rate and thus, the respiration rate. On the other hand, anaerobic or resistance exercises such as weight lifting, push-ups, etc., done at slow pace and they are less intense. Such exercises use large muscle groups which do not require oxygen for short periods of physical exercise. Yoga is another form of exercise which suppresses the counter regulatory hormones.
It also helps to insulin sensitivity and maintains blood glucose level. You must enjoy the exercise, else it can lead to stress and boredom. Start with your with a warm up and do it for about 5 to 10 minutes at a time. Increase the intensity and the duration of exercise gradually. A young diabetic individual who has good metabolic control can participate in most activities. The middle-aged and older diabetics should be, encouraged to stay physically active and thus they can go for resistance training suitable to their fitness. Before beginning any exercising program, you must undergo thorough screening to check any underlying complications which can get worse after exercising.
Pharmacotherapy for Diabetes
Uncontrolled diabetes requires treatment with medicines to give immediate relief. Your doctor may prescribe a combination of drugs for diabetes. Possible treatments may include metformin (Glucophage, Glumetza, etc.), sulfonylureas, DPP-4 inhibitors, thiazolidinediones, GLP-1 receptor agonists and SGLT2 inhibitors. Type 1 diabetes is taken care of by giving insulin. Type 2 diabetes patients are different. Some people with type 2 diabetes can attain their target blood sugar levels with regulated diet and exercise alone, but in many cases diabetes medications, needed or even insulin. Therefore, metformin for preventing progression of type 2 diabetes for those who have prediabetes, those aged less than 60 years, and females with prior gestational diabetes mellitus. You must monitor for vitamin B12 deficiency if you are using metformin. For insulin therapy, depending on the tendency of blood sugar rise and physiological need, your doctor may prescribe a particular mixture of insulin types which you must use as per the prescription.
Diabetes cannot be ignored nor taken for granted. Although, some of us – genetically prone to diabetes, may even get it at very young age, erratic lifestyle plays a major role in development of this disease. By modifying lifestyle, you can learn how to lower blood sugar levels. Good lifestyle changes can reverse diabetes, with minimal use of drugs.