The function of kidney in our body

What are the kidneys?

The two kidneys are present as a bean-shaped organ with a size of a fist located just below the rib cage in the human body. Each one is located on either side of the spine. They filter nearly 120 to 150 quarts of blood daily to produce 1 to 2 quarts of urine which contain all the waste metabolic byproducts as salts, minerals, toxins, and excess fluids. The urine flows from the kidneys to the urinary bladder via two thin tubes known as ureters.

It is there one on each side of the bladder. The bladder helps in storing of the urine until it is expelled out of the body when a person goes to the bathroom. The bladder wall muscles remain in a relaxed state while the bladder gets filled with the urine. After the bladder reaches the maximum capacity then signal is sent to the brain as an urge for the washroom. When a person passes out urine it flows from the tube called urethra present below the bladder. In men, urethra is long, while in women it is short.

It is there one on each side of the bladder. The bladder helps in storing of the urine until it is expelled out of the body when a person goes to the bathroom. The bladder wall muscles remain in a relaxed state while the bladder gets filled with the urine. After the bladder reaches the maximum capacity then signal is sent to the brain as an urge for the washroom. When a person passes out urine it flows from the tube called urethra present below the bladder. In men, urethra is long, while in women it is short.

Why are the kidneys so important?

The kidneys are essentially important as they play a vital role in blood filtration in the body. They help in keeping the blood pH levels and composition stable which further helps in proper functioning of the body. It prevents the accumulation of waste materials in the body. It also keeps the electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and phosphate in balance. It helps in the production of hormones which further controls the blood pressure and red blood cell production and keeps the bone strong and healthy by ensuring a balance of calcium levels in the body.

kidney

What work the kidneys do?

Each of the two kidneys present in the body consists of millions of filtering units known as the nephrons. Each nephron contributes its bit to the filtration process and together all of them filter the good amount of blood daily and regularly without taking a pause. The nephrons, equipped with a two-step process to aid the filtration process.

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It involves the glomerulus which allows the fluid and waste products to pass through it and stopping the passage of blood cells and other large molecules like proteins. Further, the filtered fluid goes through the tubule, which absorbs the required minerals and sends them back to the bloodstream by removing the wastes from it. Finally, it leads to the formation of urine which passes out of the body.

It involves the glomerulus which allows the fluid and waste products to pass through it and stopping the passage of blood cells and other large molecules like proteins. Further, the filtered fluid goes through the tubule, which absorbs the required minerals and sends them back to the bloodstream by removing the wastes from it. Finally, it leads to the formation of urine which passes out of the body. The process of filtration removes the extra fluids and toxins from the blood.

The kidneys filter daily nearly 120 to 152 quarts or 113 to 144 liters of blood to form 1 to 2 quarts or 0.94 to 1.8 liters of urine daily. The urine, sent via two tubes from the kidneys into the bladder, where it leaves the body through the urethra when urine, passed out. During filtration, all the toxins, passed from the blood to the urine. Kidneys help in hormone productions which further effects and several other body functions. Each part of the entire urinary system plays an important dual role both for itself and the entire system to work efficiently for the body.

What are the main functions of the kidneys?

  1. It regulates the blood volume:

The kidneys conserve the required amount as well as eliminate the excess water from the bloodstream. It further serves in regulating the volume of the blood in the whole body.

      2. It controls the blood pressure:

          The kidneys help in blood pressure regulation by the following three ways:

  • It regulates the blood volume by regulating the amount of water in the blood, eliminates the excess of it.
  • It adjusts both the inflow and outflow of blood from the kidneys.
  • By regulating the production of the enzyme renin. The kidneys cause the secretion of renin, which further triggers the angiotensin-aldosterone pathway and controls the blood pressure.
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 kidneys

  1. It regulates the pH levels of the blood:

The kidneys excrete the hydrogen atoms which lack their single electron and eliminate it via the urine. Even, conserving the bicarbonate ions, an essential buffer of the hydrogen atoms and the procedure balances acid-base levels of the blood by the kidneys.

  1. It regulates the electrolytic or the ionic composition of the blood:

The kidneys also regulate the amounts of ions or the charged particles in the blood. Like sodium ions (Na+), calcium ions (Ca2+), potassium ions (K+), chloride ions (Cl), and phosphate ions (HPO42-).

  1. It helps in the production of the red blood cells:

The kidneys trigger the release of a hormone erythropoietin and it stimulates erythropoiesis. And finally leads to the production of red blood cells in the body.

  1. It helps in the Vitamin D synthesis:

The kidneys along with the skin and liver leads to the synthesis of calcitrol in the body. Calcitrol is mainly an active form of vitamin D.

  1. Excretion of waste metabolic byproducts and other toxic substances:

The kidneys help in the elimination of the waste products from the body through the urine. Several waste components of the kidneys include an excess of consumed drugs, and other toxins ammonia as a byproduct of amino acids break down, bilirubin as a byproduct of haemoglobin break down mechanism and creatinine as a byproduct of creatine phosphate in the muscle fibers.

Conclusion

The kidney plays an important role of blood purification in the body and its parts all together complete the process on daily basis, without halting for a minute to ensure waste elimination and healthy blood in the body.

 

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