What is Diabetes?
Most of the food we eat is turned into glucose, or sugar, for our bodies to use for energy. The pancreas, an organ that lies near the stomach, makes a hormone called insulin to help glucose get into the cells of our bodies. When you have diabetes, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or can’t use its own insulin as well as it should. This causes sugars to build up in the blood. Diabetes can cause serious health complications including heart disease, blindness, kidney failure, and lower-extremity amputations.
Symptoms of diabetes
- High levels of sugar in the blood and urine
- Frequent urination
- Weight loss
- Mood swings
- Skin infection
- Blurry vision
Diabetes is becoming increasingly more common throughout the world, due to increased obesity – which can lead to metabolic syndrome or pre-diabetes leading to higher incidences of type 2 diabetes.
Causes of Diabetes
Diabetes causes vary relying on your genetic makeup, family records, ethnicity, fitness and environmental factors. There may be no common diabetes because that fits each type of diabetes. The reason there is no defined diabetes cause is that the reasons of diabetes vary depending on the person and the type. For example; the causes of type 1 diabetes vary appreciably from the reasons for gestational diabetes. Similarly, the reasons for type 2 diabetes are distinct from the causes of type 1 diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes causes
Type 1 diabetes is caused by the immune system destroying the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. This causes diabetes by leaving the body without enough insulin to function normally. This is called an autoimmune reaction, or autoimmune cause because the body is attacking itself.
There are no specific diabetes causes, but the following triggers may be involved:
- Viral or bacterial infection
- Chemical toxins within the food
- Unidentified component causing an autoimmune reaction
- Underlying genetic disposition may also be a type 1 diabetes cause.
Type 2 diabetes causes
Type 2 diabetes causes are usually multifactorial – more than one diabetes reason is involved. Often, the most overwhelming component is a family record of type 2 diabetes. This is the most likely type 2 diabetes cause. There are a variety of threat factors for type 2 diabetes, all or any of which grew the chances of developing the situation.
- Living a sedentary lifestyle
- Increasing age
- Bad diet
Another type 2 diabetes causes such as pregnancy or illness can be type 2 diabetes risk factors.
Gestational diabetes causes
The causes of diabetes in pregnancy also known as gestational diabetes remain unknown. However, there are a number of risk factors that increase the chances of developing this condition:
- The family history of gestational diabetes
- Overweight or obese
- Suffer from polycystic ovary syndrome
- Have had a large baby weighing over 9lb
Causes of gestational diabetes may also be related to ethnicity – some ethnic groups have a higher risk of gestational diabetes.
Other diabetes causes
There are a variety of other potential diabetes causes. These include the following:
- Pancreatitis or pancreatectomy as a cause of diabetes. Hence, pancreatitis is known to increase the risk of developing diabetes, as is a pancreatectomy.
- Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). One of the root causes of PCOS is obesity-linked insulin resistance, which may also increase the risk of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes.
- Cushing’s syndrome. This syndrome increases production of the cortisol hormone, which serves to increased blood glucose levels. An over-abundance of cortisol can cause diabetes.
- Glucagonoma Patients with Glucagonoma may experience diabetes because of a lack of equilibrium between levels of insulin production and glucagon production.
- Steroid-induced diabetes (steroid diabetes) is a rare form of diabetes that occurs due to prolonged use of glucocorticoid therapy.
You’re more likely to get type 2 diabetes if:
Diabetes runs in your family –
If you have a parent, brother, or sister who has it, your chances rise. Furthermore, you can take action through everyday lifestyle habits, like exercise and healthy eating, to lower your odds of following in their footsteps.
You have pre-diabetes –
That means your blood sugar level is above normal but you don’t have the disease yet. Hence, to keep it that way, get more active and lose any extra weight. Your doctor may recommend you take the prescription drug metformin.
You’re not physically active –
It’s never too late to change that. Check in with your doctor first, so you know what’s safe for you to do.
- You’re overweight, especially around your waist. Not everyone with type 2 diabetes is overweight, but extra pounds make you more likely to get the condition. Belly fat seems to be particularly risky.
- You’ve had heart disease.
- You have high blood pressure.
- Your “good” cholesterol level is low. It’s too low if it’s less than 40 mg/dL (milligrams per decilitre).
- Your triglyceride level is high. It’s too high if it’s over 150 mg/dL.
- You’ve had diabetes during pregnancy before. That condition (called gestational diabetes) or delivering a baby over 9 pounds can make you more likely to get type 2 diabetes.
- You’re a woman who has PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome).
You’re age 45 or older –
The chance of getting type 2 diabetes rises with age. Furthermore, diabetes isn’t a normal part of aging.
- You’re Hispanic, African-American, Native American, or Asian American. Diabetes is more common among these groups.
Diabetes is a common hormonal problem that if untreated can result in diabetes complications including diabetic neuropathy, kidney troubles, heart troubles, retinopathy and other issues. Therefore, at advanced levels, diabetes can reason kidney failure, amputation, blindness, and stroke. However, complications can avoid or drastically delayed by using exercise good control of diabetes, blood pressure, and cholesterol.