5 Common Complications and causes – Thyroid Cancer


The thyroid gland produces hormones that are responsible for some of the body’s involuntary actions like heart rate, body temperature, blood pressure, etc. parafollicular cells which are the main cells in the gland, are responsible for the production of the thyroid hormone. In the Asian region, thyroid complications are common and women are more prone to the disease as compared to men.

Thyroid Cancer

These complications include hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer in extreme cases. Most of these complications can be treated with proper medication but thyroid cancer is quite complex and may require surgery for its removal. Thyroid cancer happens in the cells of the thyroid — a gland in the shape of a butterfly, situated at the base of the neck, just beneath Adam’s apple. Thyroid cancer is not so common but other thyroid-related issues are quite common. Neglecting these thyroid problems over a period of time may result in thyroid cancer.

What are the Complications of thyroid cancer?

Thyroid cancer, in general, does not show any complications in the early stage. However, some complications may occur because of other thyroid conditions. If the early symptoms are ignored, then cancer starts growing and can lead to following complications.

  1. Voice change and Pain:

    If you are feeling an irritation in your throat and your voice is changing (increase hoarseness) then it may be because of the thyroid cancer. As the size of the cancerous cells increases, it directly affects the voice box and results in voice change. Pain in the neck area and throat is a common thyroid complication. If you are feeling a certain uneasiness in your throat, neck, or shoulders then thyroid cancer might be the reason behind it provided that you previously had other thyroid complications.

  2. Swollen neck:

    thyroid complications include lump formation which is noticeable. This lump can be felt through the skin on your neck. The lymph nodes of the thyroid gland may get swollen because of cancer. As a result, you can see the excessive swelling around the neck. Because of the increased size of the thyroid gland (cancer), you may feel difficulty in swallowing. If you are a thyroid patient and are facing this difficulty then you must see a doctor immediately as this an indication of thyroid cancer and thyroid nodules.

What are the Causes of thyroid cancer?

In a nutshell, there is yet no answer to the question- what causes thyroid cancer? But the disease is well defined by the doctors and the treatment is possible. Thyroid malignancy happens when cells in your thyroid experience hereditary (genetic) change. The changes enable the cells to develop and duplicate quickly.

Also, the cells lose the ability to vanish on their own and as a result, these unwanted cells take the shape of a tumor. This condition is defined as the thyroid cancer. These cells can further damage nearby tissues and organs like the voice box, Adam’s apple, etc. In the worst case, they can reach out to the lungs and can cause life-threatening damage. However, following are the risk factors that may be responsible for thyroid cancer.


  1. Radiation exposure:

    exposure to radiation is considered to be a cause of thyroid cancer. It can be further classified into two parts (exposures). The first is exposure to nuclear waste. Nuclear waste can be released during a nuclear explosion, malfunctioning, or improper dumping of the waste. The other case includes an exposure to radioactive substances at a small level like medical treatments, etc. Studies have shown that kids who received radiation therapies (around the neck) were later diagnosed with thyroid cancer. In the mid of the 19th century, scientists and doctors were not accurate enough to understand the effects of radioactive exposures on human health. However, now there are strict guidelines and regulations for the use of radiations for medical treatment. It is believed that the number of such cases will drop in upcoming years.

  2. Gender and Health:

    The number of thyroid issues is more in women as compared to men. As a matter of fact, the chances for women to develop thyroid complications are three times than men. The reason behind this is not found yet. It is believed that this is because of the different hormones that are released during pregnancy and menstrual cycles. But there is no strong evidence that proves this theory. Apart from this, there are certain health conditions that are said to increase the risk of developing thyroid cancer.



    Thyroid Cancer

  3. These are:
  • Thyroid adenoma:

    a condition when thyroid gland grows abnormally.

  • Cowden’s syndrome:

    a rare genetic condition which increases the chances of developing thyroid cancer.

  • Familial adenomatous polyposis:

    responsible for unnecessary growths in intestines.

  • Hashimoto’s thyroiditis:

    this is a common condition under which the immune system alters the functioning of the thyroid gland by attacking it.

  1. Finally, the types of thyroid cancer:

    The actual reason is, not wellknown yet, we can only increase our knowledge about thyroid cancer causes. Thyroid cancer, split into different categories. These types of thyroid cancer include:

  • Follicular thyroid cancer:

    it arises from the follicular cells of the thyroid gland and generally affects people in their 50s. Hurthle cell cancer is a subtype of follicular thyroid cancer which is rare and aggressive (grows faster).

  • Papillary thyroid cancer:

    it arises from follicular cells and is the most general form of thyroid cancer. Follicular cells are responsible for the production and storage of thyroid hormones. It occurs at any age, generally seen in people ranging from 30 to 50 years.

  • Anaplastic thyroid cancer:

    this is the most lethal, latest, and hard to treat thyroid cancer. It occurs in people having an age of 60+ years.

  • Medullary thyroid cancer:

    this cancer begins in C cells, which release the calcitonin hormone. Excessive amounts of calcitonin hormone can indicate the presence of medullary thyroid cancer at an initial level.

  • Thyroid lymphoma:

    it is a rare form of thyroid cancer,generates in the immune system cells in the thyroid gland and spreads out quickly.


thyroid cancer simply means that there is an unwanted growth in certain cells related to the thyroid gland. It is a serious problem whose exact causes are unknown. However, the specialist uses different theories and concepts to treat the problem. There are no early symptoms of the disease but on the later stage, complications are a change in voice, difficulty in eating, swelling around the neck, etc.

The symptoms are not that lethal as compared to other diseases but can cause life-threatening problems if left unnoticed. Thyroid cancer occurs mainly because of other thyroid complications like an under-active thyroid, overactive thyroid, thyroid nodules, etc. these complications, when left untreated for a certain period of time, may grow into thyroid cancer.

The risk factors for the disease are radiation exposure, gender (more chances in women), age (30 to 50+ years), and certain health conditions. Other than that, the cancer is further classified into different classes based on the cells which cause cancer. The specialist can treat it easily whereas the anaplastic thyroid cancer is very difficult to treat.

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