Common kidney diseases

Overview of kidney disease

The kidneys occur in a pair and are fist-sized organs. They are present each on one side of the spine, nearly at the bottom of the rib cage. Proper functioning of the kidneys is essential for any healthy individual to stay away from kidney disease. Kidneys are responsible for the process of blood filtration in the body. Eliminating waste by-products of the metabolic processes is its main task. Which include eliminating excess salts, minerals, water or other fluids, and other toxic substances through urine. It also helps in the production of various hormones which further helps in controlling red blood cell production and blood pressure regulation in the body. They even activate a vitamin d form which helps in calcium absorption in body imbalance of it might result in de-calcification of bones or in conditions like weak and fragile bones.

Every year millions of people are being affected by the several kidney diseases. Alteration of kidney functions because of several underlying diseases leads to kidney disease and sometimes in acute or chronic kidney failure. Kidney diseases can even complicate other health problems, and further might cause nerve damage, weak bones, and malnutrition due to diet constraints.

What are the common kidney diseases?

Several commonly occurring kidney diseases include chronic kidney disease, acute kidney failure, kidney failure, kidney stone, kidney cyst, polycystic kidney disease, glomerulonephritis, nephritic syndrome, hematuria, IgA nephropathy, uremia, UTIs, lupus erythematosus, and pyelonephritis etc.

Chronic kidney disease:

It is usually the most common kidney disease which occurs in the patients. It is a long-term kidney condition which is hard to reverse and normally do not improve over the time even upon treatment. One of its main causes is underlying blood pressure condition.

kidney diseases

High blood pressure condition is a dangerous one for the kidneys. It builds up pressure on the tiny blood vessel units known as glomeruli which are responsible for the blood filtration process. A gradual increase in blood pressure if not treated over the time starts affecting the kidney function. Once the kidney function declines it might lead to a complete kidney failure if untreated.

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Diabetes is another main cause of the chronic kidney disease. Diabetes causes high blood sugar levels in the body. The increased blood sugar levels in the body cause damage to the blood vessels of the kidneys over the time. The kidneys become incapable of cleaning and filtering the blood with efficiency hence, kidney failure can happen if the body becomes overloaded with the toxic substances which are normally removed from the body.

Acute kidney failure or injury:

If the kidneys stop working all of a sudden in a short period of time probably in a couple of days or less than it is called as an acute kidney injury (AKI). AKI is also termed as an acute renal failure or acute kidney failure. It is one of the serious kidney conditions which require immediate treatment. In case of AKI reversal is possible if diagnosed early and treated on time. In this, even after sudden renal failure upon treatment, there are fewer chances of life-long lasting kidney damage. Since most of the damage, reversed in AKI and after proper treatment, most of the patient’s kidneys function nearly same like a pre-kidney failure. However, there are few rare cases of lasting damage which enters a chronic kidney disease situation and end up in renal failure over a long time if proper treatment is not given.

Kidney stones:

It is another common problem of the kidney which occurs due to the accumulation of salts and minerals in the form of stones. Stones are the crystalline hard substances which might occur anywhere in kidneys, ureter or urinary bladder. Its common symptom is pain during urination, abnormal urine color and pain in groin and lower abdomen area.

Glomerulonephritis:

It is mainly a glomeruli inflammation. Glomeruli are very small structures which are present in the kidneys and helps in the filtration of the blood. Congenital abnormalities which are present since birth or infections are the probable reasons for glomerulonephritis.

Diabetic nephropathy:

Nephropathy causes damage to the kidney. In severe cases of diabetic neuropathy, even kidney failure can happen. Diabetic patient, not always end-up with kidney failure, if precautions taken for the diabetic condition, treated by taking measures.

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Acute nephritis:

Sudden inflammation of the kidneys is an indication of acute nephritis. It can even further lead to renal failure if not treated on time with proper treatment.

Polycystic kidney disease:

The cause of this disease is mainly a genetic disorder which leads to the formation of multiple cysts in which small fluid-filled sacs formation occurs inside the kidneys. It affects the functioning of the kidney and even can end up in kidney failure. Individual kidney cysts, usually harmless and don’t show symptoms, however, the polycystic condition is a severe immediate treatment indeed, due to interference with the kidney and higher risk of renal failure.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs):

These are usually, caused by the bacterial infections which might occur anywhere in the urinary system. Infections are very common in the bladder or urethra. One can easily treat these infections with the help of medications upon diagnosis by the physician. If infections, not identified and treated properly, reaches out to kidneys and cause kidney failure or complications in pre-existing disease.

kidney diseases

Conclusion

Kidney diseases over the time might eventually stop the kidneys from function and a renal failure if the disease is not treated on time. In such cases, patients depend upon dialysis at regular intervals, where blood filteration process, done through a machine. Else a kidney transplant can only be a hope for the survival of the patient.

 

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