Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-(COPD): Causes and Treatments

COPD is also called as chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD). COPD is the chronic illness that obstructs the lungs. It is the Inflammation in lungs causes blockage in the airway which leads to difficulty in breathing, cough, and increased secretion of mucus. The major cause of COAD is prolonged cigarette smoking. Passive smokers are also having chances of developing COPD.

Causative factors

A lung allows oxygen to flow into the tubes. Oxygen reaches the tiny air pouches called alveoli. Air exchange takes place in the alveolus. This is the normal process take place in the lungs called respiration. Polluted air contaminates the whole process leads to a tedious condition called COAD. Below are the few causations of COAD,

Cigarette smoking

Smoking considered being a major cause of COAD. Unsafe chemicals in smoke hurt the inner layer of the lungs. Damage leads to severe inflammation and increases the secretion of mucus. Collection of mucus blocks the airway. A number of cigarettes increase the chances of getting COPD. Passive smoking also has more chances of causing COAD.

exposure of fumes and chemicals in the work area

Constant exposure to fumes and chemicals in the work area is another stimulant for COPD. Various types of gases and chemical are released from industries. Long exposure to the poisonous gases and chemicals damage the lungs gradually. Toxic chemicals burn the mucous membrane of the lungs leads to more damage.


Poor ventilation

Poorly ventilated homes and offices have chances of causing COAD. Smoke produced while cooking may increase the possibilities of acquiring COAD due to poor ventilation. Generally, women are exposed to fumes from cooking oil, cooking fuels like kerosene, gas, wood, and charcoal. Poor ventilation let the smoke to revolve inside the home.

Air pollution

Cities are packed with population and Smoke emitting industries. Smoke from industries contains micro-particles called irritants. Irritants harm the lung tissues. Long exposure to irritants leads to permanent damage to the lungs.

Heredity contributes COAD

Heredity with smoking has more increases the chances of acquiring disease condition. The liver produces an essential protein to reduce the chances of getting COAD from parents. The habit of smoking and heredity rises the possibility of getting COAD.


Stop smoking

Primary step for any treatment is a cessation of the cause. As stated above, smoking is the primary cause for inducing the inflammation in COPD. To quit smoking is not an easy task. With the help of family and friends quit smoking is possible. Replace cigarette with nicotine with doctor’s advice. It is a wonderful idea to avoid passive smoking.



Several kinds of medications are prescribed by the physician to reduce the symptoms and improve the overall health.


Bronchodilators are the prime medication protocol that helps in reducing the symptoms and progress the breathing. The work of bronchodilators is to expand the bronchus and aids in comfortable breathing. It also relaxes the neighboring muscles and makes extra room for lungs to move. Bronchodilators are available in the form of an inhaler. The common adverse effect of bronchodilators is dry mouth and throat.

Corticosteroids (Inhalation)

Inhaling corticosteroids are prescribed in worsen condition only. Inhaling corticosteroids the medication act against the own defensive mechanism. The defensive mechanism and inflammation will drop down inhaling the steroids. Adverse effects of the steroids are hurting and disturbing. Frequent respiratory infections, oral infection, fever; skin lesions are some of the side effects.


Various respiratory infections like bronchitis severe lung infection and diseases with COPD worsen the overall health. An antibiotic reduces the infection and its symptoms. Azithromycin is the commonly, prescribed medication with both antibiotic and anti-inflammatory properties.

Lung therapy and recovery programmes

Oxygen is essential for all vital organs. Oxygen adminstration normalizes breathing. It needs to be administered continuously for the worsening condition.Oxygen can is administered only in necessary situations for early stage persons.   Rehabilitation is the part of treatment. Health education on nutrition, breathing exercise, coping techniques; has to be, provided in a rehabilitation programme. Rehabilitation promotes self – confidence.

Lung surgeries

Surgery is the option in case of medication and therapy failure. Infected lung tissue is surgically, removed from the upper part of the lungs. Partial removal of lung tissues gives extra room for the healthy lung-lobes to expand. Diaphragm also works well after the surgery. Lung replacement is, advised for the worsening condition. Organ rejection is the common adverse effect in lung transplant.


COPD is the deadly condition accompanied by serious complications. Few precautionary actions towards prevention offer a positive outcome. Alertness about the causative factors and complications prevents the disease condition. Quit smoking, Promotion of air circulation, avoidance of air pollution, and using protective devices like a face mask in the workplace are a few defensive measures.

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