What is Lipid?
Lipids, together with carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids, are one of the 4 major classes of biologically essential organic molecules found in all living organisms; their quantities and quality in the diet are able to influence cell, tissue and body physiology.
Unlike carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids they aren’t polymers but small molecules, with a molecular weight that range between 100 and 5000, and also vary substantially in polarity, consisting of hydrophobic molecules, like triglycerides or sterol esters, and others more water-soluble like phospholipids or very short-chain fatty acids, the latter completely miscible with water and insoluble in non-polar solvents.
The little or absent water-solubility of a lot of them means that they are an issue too important treatments at all stages of their utilization, that is in the course of digestion, absorption, transport, storage and use.
Cholesterol is a form of lipid that’s required by the body to keep the rigidity of the cells by adding to the stability of the cell wall, further to performing other critical functions such as manufacturing of hormones, vitamin D, and bile acids.Lipids have especially hydrocarbons in their composition and are highly reduced varieties of carbon. When metabolized, lipids are oxidized to release large quantities of energy and thus are useful to living organisms.
They can be classified into three major groups:-
- Triglycerides – obtain from food sources of fat, such as cooking oils, butter, and animal fat.
- Steroids – are a type of lipid that includes hormones and cholesterol.
- Phospholipids – are responsible for protecting and insulating cells.
What is Lipid Profile?
Medical Definition of Lipid profile – A pattern of lipids inside the blood. A lipid profile usually includes the levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and the calculated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) ‘cholesterol.
Lipid profile or lipid panel is the collective term given to the estimation of, typically, overall cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. An extended lipid profile may consist of very low-density lipoprotein. That is used to identify hyperlipidemia (various disturbances of cholesterol and triglyceride levels), many forms of which can be recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease and sometimes pancreatitis.
Another name for lipid profile is:-
- Coronary Risk Panel Tests
- Hyperlipidemia– Testing
- Lipoprotein/Cholesterol Analysis
Cholesterol and triglycerides are important in certain quantities for fitness and well-being, since they perform important functions inside the body. Cholesterol helps in building cells and manufacture hormones. LDL carries cholesterol throughout the body to carry out those functions. HDL is the clean-up lipoprotein, picking up extra cholesterol and carrying it back to the liver. Body utilize Triglycerides to store energy and to provide that energy, as per the requirement, to the muscles.
What is Lipid Disorder?
Lipid levels may become abnormal because of changes that occur with aging, various disorders (which include inherited ones), use of certain drugs, or lifestyle (along with consuming a diet high in saturated fat, being physically inactive, or being obese).Whenever there is an imbalance in the level of fats or lipids in the bloodstream it is called ‘Dyslipidemia’.
Abnormal levels of lipids (especially cholesterol) can cause long-term problems, such as atherosclerosis. Generally, a high total cholesterol level (which includes LDL, HDL, and VLDL cholesterol), in particular, a high level of LDL (the “bad”) cholesterol, will increase the risk of atherosclerosis and thus the risk of heart attack or stroke. However, not all types of cholesterol increase this risk. A high level of HDL (the “good”) cholesterol may decrease risk, and conversely, a low level of HDL cholesterol may increase risk.
What are the Symptoms of Lipid Disorder?
Because there are such a wide variety of lipid storage disorders, the signs and symptoms are very diverse. The signs and symptoms of most lipid storage disorders appear early in a child’s life and generally increase in severity over time.
Some of the most common signs and symptoms of lipid storage disorders are enlargement of the liver and spleen, skin and eye discoloration, neurological problems consisting of dementia and seizures, and trouble swallowing. Adult-onset lipid storage disorders may include symptoms such as anemia, bruising, bone pain, depression, ataxia, seizures, lung disease, tremor, or dementia.
There are no specific symptoms of Lipid Disorder (Dyslipidemia) but they lead to certain other conditions that include:
- Coronary artery disease
- Corneal opacification
- Corneal arcus
- Retinal arteries look creamy white
- Impairment of balance
- Abdominal pain
Specialist recommend a lipid profile screening if an individual has any two (sometimes even one) of the following risk factors:-
- Age – Men above 40 years or women above 50-55 years have an increased risk for Dyslipidemia
- High blood pressure
- A cigarette smoker – The risk is greater if the individual is a chain smoker
- Family history – Since heredity plays an important role in the lipid profile of an individual, an individual with a marked family history should undergo the test at regular intervals to ensure management and care
- Diabetes – Individuals with diabetes are at a higher risk for Dyslipidemia
Lipid Disorder(Hyperlipidemia) is an asymptomatic condition in which there are ample amounts of fatty substances in the blood.
Triglycerides<150 mg/dL, overall cholesterol <200 mg/dL, LDL <200 mg/dL, and HDL ≥60 mg/dL are desirable. Hyperlipidemia can result in atherosclerosis, CAD, stroke or MI. decreasing blood lipids requires lifestyle modification (diet, workout, weight loss and not smoking) and possible prescription medication to lower cholesterol or triglycerides in the blood.
Exercising testing for people w/o other conditions can follow ACSM’s guidelines for people who are at risk for CAD. Exercise prescription should consist of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training which has been shown to decrease blood lipids